Solar panels

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Solar panels, also referred to as solar modules or PV modules are an elementary component of photovoltaic systems. They have the task to transform incident solar rays into electrical energy. In order to achieve this, Solar panels are made up of several layers. Inside the panel are the solar cells. In each solar cell is a semiconductor, which is responsible for the conversion of sunlight into usable energy. Semiconductors have substances that develop electrical conductivity in light and heat, whilst having an insulating effect during cold weather. The semiconductors used in solar cells are doped differently. That is, various chemical elements have been added to them so that they are either positively or negatively charged. One speaks of p-type semiconductor layers and n-type semiconductor layers. If two differently charged semiconductor layers meet, a so-called p-n junction is formed at the interface. Here an inner electric field is formed. In the case of solar radiation, the electrical voltage is produced and delivered to connected consumer devices.

On the cell, a layer is a layer of EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) or cast resin. It protects the sensitive semiconductor against weathering, moisture, and corrosion. There is also a protective layer below the solar module. This stabilizes the module structure and prevents stored heat loss. In order for the solar energy to be efficiently used, at least one of these layers must be slightly-permeable. A special solar glass plate is installed on top of the EVA layer. In order to achieve efficient energy production, these special requirements must be met: The glass must be thick enough to withstand wind and weather effects, and at the same time the incident light must not be absorbed and stored by the panel itself.